Agricultural technologies are developed to increase production, resolve chemo-physical, biological, and socioeconomic constraints related to crop production systems.
During the past three decades, there has been an increasing realization that technologies need to be tailored to the circumstances of farmers as well as to future sustainability goals including climate change projections.
Climate projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have shown skewed future rainfall patterns with shortened growing seasons (leading to periodic and terminal droughts) and extremes of temperature all of which threaten agriculture production.
Current threats require an advanced analysis of best-fit solutions in order for agricultural technologies to serve smallholder farmers’ needs. Climate-smart agriculture defined as agricultural practices that sustainably improve production, the resilience of production systems, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions is required to overcome climate extremes and variability.
Future food production systems will rely heavily on the successful integration of a range of technologies that are climate responsive and environmentally enhancing.
Robust policies that will shape institutions to deliver more agricultural products and financial gains in the long term are needed.
Rainfall and temperature projections show that by 2050, the arid regions in southern Africa will expand as humid and subhumid zones shift toward the equator.
In Kenya, there is an ever-increasing danger of arable land becoming arid or semi-arid because of ecological changes caused by the growth of a population that relies on forests for fuel.
Traditionally, a farmer waits for the onset of the rainy season to do their planting. Hunger, poverty, HIV/AIDS and violence against women will not subside anytime soon.
Why? Because climate alternations have made it difficult to know when to expect rain. Most small-holder farmers who do not have access to insurance; loans and extension services lose much of their capital investment by crops being destroyed by long dry spells or excessive rainfall.
With the invasion of technology, this is expected to change and hence increased yields.
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